American scientists successfully developed enzyme-free ionic liquid

Editor's note: Recently, the US Department of Energy, the Joint Bioenergy Institute and Berkeley Laboratories have jointly developed an ionic liquid that can pre-treat cellulose at room temperature, or is expected to achieve low-cost research and development and production of biofuels.

Ionic liquid is an unconventional "green" medium and an ideal substitute for traditional volatile solvents. This emerging green dielectric material has excellent properties such as odorless, pollution-free, non-flammable, easy to separate from products, easy to recycle, and can be recycled repeatedly, which can effectively avoid serious environmental and health problems caused by the use of traditional organic solvents. A huge industrial application prospect.

In 2008, An Xiaoning of South China University of Technology proposed "a method to increase the enzymatic catalysis of ibuprofen chiral resolution reaction in ionic liquids". The invention discloses an enzymatic chiral resolution of ibuprofen in ionic liquids The method of reaction rate, this method is to disperse the nanocarrier immobilized enzyme in the ionic liquid containing ibuprofen and 1-propanol, and stir the reaction at 25 ℃ ~ 35 ℃ for 24 to 48 hours; wherein, ibuprofen and The molar ratio of 1-propanol is 1 to 6:20, the mass ratio of ionic liquid of ibuprofen is 1 mg: 2 to 4 ml, and the mass ratio of ionic liquid of nanocarrier immobilized enzyme is 1 g: 4 to 10 ml. The method of the invention is simple and easy to operate, and can be produced in large quantities. The enzymes and ionic liquids are green chemicals, and the reaction for preparing chiral ibuprofen does not pollute the environment.

In addition, China has also made important achievements in the large-scale preparation of ionic liquids. In 2005, the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences independently developed the first set of domestic ionic liquid large-scale preparation and cleaning technology, which solved the high cost of raw materials for small-scale preparation, complex synthesis process, poor recycling of solvents and raw materials, serious pollution, and low conversion rate. And other issues, an important step towards industrial application of ionic liquids.

Researchers in France and Spain announced on October 13, 2010 that they have developed a highly effective biocatalytic process in the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazoline bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide The amine can be synthesized to produce biodiesel. The ionic liquid (IL) can dissolve the triolein / methanol mixture at various ratios, and provides a suitable and uniform single-phase medium for enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. Up to 96% under C. The enzyme / IL system can be reused for seven cycles of operation without any loss of IL phase or enzyme activity.

In fact, the use of enzymes to obtain fermented sugar from lignocellulose, but its cost is expensive, and consume a lot of water resources. The replacement of volatile organic solvents with environmentally friendly ionic liquids is the current development direction of green chemistry. Ionic liquids that can decompose biomass fuel cellulose show great potential, but the best ionic liquids to date still require the use of expensive enzymes. The design and preparation of low-cost functionalized ionic liquids is a prerequisite for large-scale industrial applications of ionic liquids.

Now this problem may be completely overcome. According to the report of the Physics Organization Network, the US Department of Energy, the Joint Bioenergy Institute and the Berkeley Laboratories have jointly developed an ionic liquid that can pre-treat cellulose at room temperature, to solve the problem of excessive biofuel cost. This is a critical step. This new technology not only does not require expensive enzymes, but its ionic liquid is also very convenient for recycling.

Recent studies have shown that acid catalysts can effectively replace the hydrolysis of enzymes. But how to separate sugar and ionic liquid is very difficult. The researchers used computer molecular dynamics simulations to find that the simultaneous use of imidazolium chloride and acid catalysts can effectively solve this problem. This latest combination makes it easy to separate fermented sugar, and the ionic liquid can also be recycled, which will greatly reduce the production cost of biofuels.

Using this enzyme-free ionic liquid, you can use acid as a catalyst to hydrolyze biological polysaccharides, so that the polysaccharide solution contains fermented sugar. This new technology can divide the pretreatment liquid into two parts, one part is rich in sugar, and the other part is recyclable lignin-rich ionic liquid. Reduced a lot.

Experts pointed out that because of the development of ionic liquids in the past decade, it has not yet seen large-scale application in industry, so the state's support has been reduced compared with previous years. Therefore, in the future research on ionic liquids, we should highlight the advantages and avoid the weaknesses, and consider it from the all-round considerations of process, catalyst stability, economic cost accounting, etc., and use it as a "scented oil" for industrial production, such as focusing on solving battery and carbon dioxide problems Focus on continuous innovation of the process.

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